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Version: 0.7.0

Co-configuration with config operations

1. Introduction

KCL is a simple and easy-to-use configuration language, where users can simply write the reusable configuration code.

In this codelab, we will learn how to write the config in a collaborative way using the KCL config operation features.

What We Will Learn

  1. Define schemas and organize project directories.
  2. Create multiple environment configurations via the KCL config operation features.
  3. Configure compiling parameters and tests.

2. Define Schemas and Organize Project Directories

Schema Definitions

Suppose we want to define a server configuration with certain attributes, we can create a simple config by creating a server.k, we can fill in the following code as below which defines a reusable schema of the configuration of a server.

import units

type Unit = units.NumberMultiplier

schema Server:
replicas: int = 1
image: str
resource: Resource = {}
mainContainer: Main = {}
labels?: {str:str}
annotations?: {str:str}

schema Main:
name: str = "main"
command?: [str]
args?: [str]
ports?: [Port]

schema Resource:
cpu?: int = 1
memory?: Unit = 1024Mi
disk?: Unit = 10Gi

schema Port:
name?: str
protocol: "HTTP" | "TCP"
port: 80 | 443
targetPort: int

check:
targetPort > 1024, "targetPort must be larger than 1024"

In the code above, we define a schema named Server, which represents the configuration type that the user will write, which contains some basic type attributes (e.g., replicas, image, etc) and some composite type attributes (e.g., resource, main, etc). In addition to some basic types mentioned in the schema codelab, we can see two types in the above code Unit and units.NumberMultiplier. Among them, units.NumberMultiplier denotes the KCL number unit type, which means that a natural unit or binary unit can be added after the KCL number, such as 1K for 1000, 1Ki for 1024. Unit is the type alias of units.NumberMultiplier, which is used to simplify the writing of type annotations.

Project Directories

In order to complete the collaborative configuration development, we first need a configuration project, which contains the configuration of the test application and the differential configuration of different environments, so we are creating the following project directory:

.
├── appops
│ └── test_app
│ ├── base
│ │ └── base.k
│ ├── dev
│ │ ├── ci-test
│ │ │ └── stdout.golden.yaml
│ │ ├── kcl.yaml
│ │ └── main.k
│ └── prod
│ ├── ci-test
│ │ └── stdout.golden.yaml
│ ├── kcl.yaml
│ └── main.k
├── kcl.mod
└── pkg
└── sever.k

The directory of the project mainly contains three parts:

  • kcl.mod: The file used to identify the root directory of the KCL project.
  • pkg: Server Schema structure reused by different application configurations.
  • appops: Server configurations of different applications, currently only one application test_app is placed.
    • base: Application common configurations for all environments.
    • dev: Application configuration for the development environment.
    • prod: Application configuration for the production environment.

The meaning of base.k, main.k, kcl.yaml and ci-test/stdout.golden.yaml will be mentioned in subsequent sections.

3. Create multiple environment configurations via the KCL config operation features

Create a baseline configuration

After we have organized the project directory and the basic server configuration model, we can write the configuration of the user application. We can create our own test application folder test_app and place it in the application configuration folder appops.

For the configuration of an application, we often divide it into a basic configuration and the differential configuration of multiple environments and merge them. Through the configuration merging feature of KCL, we can easily do this. Assuming that we have two configurations of development environment and production environment, we can create three folders: base, dev and prod to store baseline, development environment and production environment configurations respectively. First, we write the configuration of base/base.k:

import pkg

server: pkg.Server {
# Set the image with the value "nginx:1.14.2"
image = "nginx:1.14.2"
# Add a label app into labels
labels.app = "test_app"
# Add a mainContainer config, and its ports are [{protocol = "HTTP", port = 80, targetPort = 1100}]
mainContainer.ports = [{
protocol = "HTTP"
port = 80
targetPort = 1100
}]
}

As in the above code, we use the import keyword in base.k to import the Server schema placed under pkg and use it to instantiate a configuration named server, in which we set image attribute to "nginx:1.14.2", and a label app with the value test_app is added. In addition, we also added the configuration of the main container mainContainer with the value [{protocol = "HTTP", port = 80, targetPort = 1100}] for the ports attribute.

KCL command:

kcl appops/test_app/base/base.k

Output:

server:
replicas: 1
image: nginx:1.14.2
resource:
cpu: 1
memory: 1073741824
disk: 10737418240
mainContainer:
name: main
ports:
- protocol: HTTP
port: 80
targetPort: 1100
labels:
app: test_app

At this point, we have a baseline configuration.

Create multiple environment configurations

Next we configure a differentiated multi-environment configuration. First assume that we want to use a temporary image of our own nginx:1.14.2-dev in the development environment, and then use it to override the server configuration in the baseline, we can write the following configuration in dev/main.k:

import pkg

server: pkg.Server {
# Override the image declared in the base
image = "nginx:1.14.2-dev"
}

KCL command:

kcl appops/test_app/base/base.k appops/test_app/dev/main.k

Output:

server:
replicas: 1
image: nginx:1.14.2-dev
resource:
cpu: 1
memory: 1073741824
disk: 10737418240
mainContainer:
name: main
ports:
- protocol: HTTP
port: 80
targetPort: 1100
labels:
app: test_app

It can be seen that the image field of the output YAML is overwritten to nginx:1.14.2-dev. Suppose we also want to add a label to the dev environment with a key of env and a value of dev, we add the following code to dev/main.k:

import pkg

server: pkg.Server {
# Override the image declared in the base
image = "nginx:1.14.2-dev"
# Union a new label env into base labels
labels.env = "dev"
}

KCL command:

kcl appops/test_app/base/base.k appops/test_app/dev/main.k
server:
replicas: 1
image: nginx:1.14.2-dev
resource:
cpu: 1
memory: 1073741824
disk: 10737418240
mainContainer:
name: main
ports:
- protocol: HTTP
port: 80
targetPort: 1100
labels:
app: test_app
env: dev

It can be seen that there are two labels in the labels field of the output YAML.

In addition, we can also use the += operator to add new values to list type attributes, such as the mainContainer.ports configuration in the baseline environment, continue to modify the code in dev/main.k:

import pkg

server: pkg.Server {
# Override the base image.
image = "nginx:1.14.2-dev"
# Union a new label env into base labels.
labels.env = "dev"
# Append a port into base ports.
mainContainer.ports += [{
protocol = "TCP"
port = 443
targetPort = 1100
}]
}

KCL command:

kcl appops/test_app/base/base.k appops/test_app/dev/main.k

Output:

server:
replicas: 1
image: nginx:1.14.2-dev
resource:
cpu: 1
memory: 1073741824
disk: 10737418240
mainContainer:
name: main
ports:
- protocol: HTTP
port: 80
targetPort: 1100
- protocol: TCP
port: 443
targetPort: 1100
labels:
app: test_app
env: dev

Using the same method, we can build the production configuration, write the code in the dev/main.k file, and add a label to it.

import pkg

server: pkg.Server {
# Union a new label env into base labels
labels.env = "prod"
}

KCL command:

kcl appops/test_app/base/base.k appops/test_app/prod/main.k

Output:

server:
replicas: 1
image: nginx:1.14.2
resource:
cpu: 1
memory: 1073741824
disk: 10737418240
mainContainer:
name: main
ports:
- protocol: HTTP
port: 80
targetPort: 1100
labels:
app: test_app
env: prod

4. Configure compiling parameters and tests

In the previous section, we built a multi-environment configuration through code. It can be seen that the KCL command line compilation parameters of different environments are similar, so we can configure these compilation parameters into a file and input them to the KCL command line for invocation. Configure the following code in dev/kcl.yaml:

kcl_cli_configs:
files:
- ../base/base.k
- main.k
output: ./ci-test/stdout.golden.yaml

Then we can compile the configuration in the development environment with the following command:

cd appops/test_app/dev && kcl -Y ./kcl.yaml

In addition, we have configured the output field in dev/kcl.yaml to output YAML to a file for subsequent configuration distribution or testing. You can verify that the application's configuration is as expected by walking through the kcl.yaml builds in each environment and comparing with ./ci-test/stdout.golden.yaml.

5. The Final Step

Congratulations!

We have completed the third lesson about KCL.